The purpose of this research was to design and test a toolkit that could be used to gather data on the impact that students who participate in child-centred risk reduction (CCRR, also called child-centred disaster risk reduction) programmes have on household safety. In particular, the toolkit collects information about if and how children share information learned through CCRR programmes with their caregivers, and if and how this information is then used.
The toolkit was designed through multiple consultations with organisational representatives and researchers to ensure its reliability, and was translated, adapted and localised for each country, and tested prior to implementation. Questions were designed to be user-friendly, with a logical content flow (starting with basic questions on demographics and hazard knowledge, then leading into queries about risk and preparedness), with wording kept simple and without jargon. Current literature and related tools were used to identify values relating to the measurement of preparedness at the household level.
The toolkit consists of four questionnaires for students, caregivers, teachers and organisational representatives. It was designed to be useful for comparison of impacts across countries, as well as to be flexibly adapted by local staff to suit cultural and risk norms and standards, languages, and to be effective at gathering findings related to children’s influence on household safety. The toolkit was further refined and localised for subsequent use in China and India.
The toolkit was developed with the primary goal of gathering information from the target groups of students, their caregivers, teachers and organisational representatives that would provide data on the impact of students on their household levels of risk after they have participated in a CCRR programme.
Toolkit content covers:
- participation in DRR learning and preparedness actions at the school, community and household levels;
- DRR-related activities at the school, community and household levels;
- training in DRR; and
- perceptions of levels of preparedness and knowledge
Recommendations for future users of the toolkit
- Sufficient time is needed to translate, localise, and contextualise the toolkit. More context-specific lines of questioning aligned to specific well-thought-out programme interventions may be required. Consideration should be given to the need for prompts or filter questions to ensure that respondents (particularly those in control groups who are unexposed to CCRR ideologies) understand the question.
- Sufficient time and budget is needed for data collection, including focus groups or interviews, and for translation of results. Involvement of monitoring and evaluation and technical advisors, peers from other programmes, as well as external consultants may facilitate additional insights.
- To facilitate more efficient and wider use of the tools, lines of questioning may be split and two or three shorter tools used in order to more easily integrate the research into day-to-day practice.
- Although the language in the toolkit is easy for staff working in disaster risk reduction to understand, translating the toolkit into language that would be easily understood by research participants was difficult. The inclusion of iconography or graphics may be a way to add variety to question type, overcome issues of language relating, and make the survey more appealing.
- The development of a public-facing iconographic research report format should be a priority for sharing results to the communities that provided input. Participatory research is ethically committed to giving back to information providers. It will be a priority to develop understandable tools for sharing results.
- The research and its outputs should be considered as both a pedagogic and advocacy tool. Programme teams reflected that administering the survey raised interest in these topics among caregivers and students who had not participated in a programme. Programme participants and control groups alike may be able to use the research findings to demonstrate how children can and should be involved in design, development, implementation and evaluation of risk reduction programming at household and community levels, and beyond.